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THE SIMPLE PAST TENSE

5-    THE  SIMPLE  PAST TENSE

 

5-1      FORM

Affirmative ( olumlu ) 

Negative (olumsuz) 

Interrogative (soru)

 

 I studiedEnglish.  

 You worked hard.

 He/She came late.

 

 It rained heavily  yesterday.

 

 We enjoyed the party.

  You helped a lot.          

 They got up early. 

 

 

 I didn't study English.    

 You didn't work hard.   

 He/She didn't come  late.  

 It didn't rain heavily  yesterday.

 

 We didn't enjoy the  party.

 You didn't help a lot.  

 They didn't get up early.

 

 

 

 

 Did I study English?

 Did you work hard?

 Did he/she come late?

 

 Did it rain heavily yesterday?

 Did we enjoy the  party? 

 

 Did you help a lot.  

 Did they get up early?

 

 

 

Olumlu cümlede, fiillerin past tense biçimi, olumsuz cümlede ve soruda ise fiillerin yalın hali kullanılır.

 

I stayed in İzmir for five years.

She didn't study hard enough to pass the exam.

Did you stay home yesterday? 

Kısa cevapta did ve  didn't kullanılır.

Did you go to the cinema last week?                                                                                  Yes, we did.  ( Yes,we went to the cinema last week. )

Did you visit your friends yesterday?

No, I didn't. (I didn't visit my friends yesterday. )

 

5-2    Bu tense'i  geçmişte yaptığımız eylemleri, olayları ve durumları anlatırken kullanırız. Yesterday, last night, last week, last summer, half an hour ago, ten days ago, two years ago vb. bu tense ile sıkça kullandığımız zaman zarflarıdır.

I became a teacher eight years ago.

Where did you go on holiday last summer?

He didn't play football last Sunday because he was ill.

She left the country a few months ago.

 

5-3    Düzenli ( regular ) fiillerin past biçimi.fiilin yalın haline "-ed " eklenerek elde edilir.

Present                  :    want             stay              study          shave
Past                        :    wanted         stayed          studied        shaved

 

5-4    "be" fiilinin past biçimi "was, were" biçimindedir.

I lived in a village when I was a child.

She was late for work yesterday, so her boss was angry with her.

We were at home last night.

 

5-5    Düzenli fiillerin "- ed" takısını almasıyla ilgili yazım kuralları şöyledir:

I)   Çoğu düzenli fiil -ed alır.

talk - talked                              govern - governed              roar - roared
walk - walked                          seem - seemed                    roam - roamed

II) Bir sessiz+bir sesli+bir sessiz harften oluşan kısa fiillerde, sondaki sessiz harf çift yazılır.

grab - grabbed                        stop - stopped                     beg - begged
ban - banned                           slim - slimmed                   rob - robbed

III) Sonu -e ile bitenler sadece -d takısı alır.

gaze - gazed                            stare - stared                      like - liked
smile - smiled                          hate - hated                        save - saved

IV) Sonu bir sessiz harf+y ile bitenlerde - y, - i olur, ondan sonra - ed eklenir.

try - tried                                  cry - cried                           apply - applied
dry - dried                            fry - fried                              study - studied

- y   den önce bir sesli harf varsa yazımda değişildik olmaz.

play - played                           delay - delayed                   betray - betrayed
pray - prayed                           decay - decayed                  spray – sprayed

 

5-6    Düzensiz (irregular ) fiillerin past biçimi ise tabloda görüldüğü gibidir.

 

AN    ALPHABETICAL LIST   OF IRREGULAR    VERBS


 

SIMPLE

FORM

 

 

SIMPLE

PAST

 

 

PAST

PARTICIPLE

 

 

SIMPLE

FORM

 

 

SIMPLE

PAST

 

 

PAST

PARTICIPLE

 

arise

 

arose

 

arisen

 

fling

 

flung

 

flung

 

be

 

was, were

 

been

 

fly

 

flew

 

flown

 

bear

 

bore

 

borne/ born

 

forbid

 

forbade

 

forbidden

 

beat

 

beat

 

b eaten /beat

 

forecast

 

forecast

 

forecast

 

become

 

became

 

become

 

forget

 

forgot

 

forgotten

 

begin

 

began

 

begun

 

forgive

 

forgave

 

forgiven

 

bend

 

bent

 

bent

 

forsake

 

forsook

 

forsaken

 

bet

 

bet

 

bet*

 

freeze

 

froze

 

frozen

 

bid

 

bid

 

bid

 

get

 

got

 

gotten

 

bind

 

bound

 

bound

 

give

 

gave

 

given

 

bite

 

bit

 

bitten

 

go

 

went

 

gone

 

bleed

 

bled

 

bled

 

grind

 

ground

 

ground

 

blow

 

blew

 

blown

 

grow

 

grew

 

grown

 

break

 

broke

 

broken

 

hang

 

hung

 

hung

 

breed

 

bred

 

bred

 

have

 

had

 

had

 

bring

 

brought

 

brought

 

hear

 

heard

 

heard

 

broadcast

 

broadcast

 

broad cast

 

hide

 

hid

 

hidden

 

build

 

built

 

built

 

hit

 

hit

 

hit

 

burst

 

burst

 

burst

 

hold

 

held

 

held

 

buy

 

bought

 

bought

 

hurt

 

hurt

 

hurt

 

cast

 

cast

 

cast

 

keep

 

kept

 

kept

 

catch

 

caught

 

caught

 

know

 

knew

 

known

 

choose

 

chose

 

chosen

 

lay

 

laid

 

laid

 

cling

 

clung

 

clung

 

lead

 

led

 

led

 

come

 

came

 

come

 

leave

 

left

 

left

 

cost

 

cost

 

cost

 

lend

 

lent

 

lent

 

creep

 

crept

 

crept

 

let

 

let

 

let

 

cut

 

cut

 

cut

 

lie

 

lay

 

lain

 

deal

 

dealt

 

dealt

 

light

 

lit/lighted

 

lit/lighted

 

dig

 

dug

 

dug

 

lose

 

lost

 

lost

 

do

 

did

 

done

 

make

 

made

 

made

 

draw

 

drew

 

drawn

 

mean

 

meant

 

meant

 

eat

 

ate

 

eaten

 

meet

 

met

 

met

 

fall

 

fell

 

fallen

 

mislay

 

mislaid

 

mislaid

 

feed

 

fed

 

fed

 

mistake

 

mistook

 

mistaken

 

feel

 

felt

 

felt

 

pay

 

paid

 

paid

 

fight

 

fought

 

fought

 

put

 

put

 

put

 

find

 

found

 

found

 

quit

 

quit

 

quit *

 

fit

 

fit

 

fit*

 

read

 

read

 

read

 

flee

 

fled

 

fled

 

rid

 

rid

 

rid

 


 

SIMPLE

FORM

 

 

SIMPLE

PAST

 

 

PAST

PARTICIPLE

 

 

SIMPLE

FORM

 

 

SIMPLE

PAST

 

 

PAST

PARTICIPLE

 

ride

 

rode

 

ridden

 

stand

 

stood

 

stood

 

ring

 

rang

 

rung

 

steal

 

stole

 

stolen

 

rise

 

rose

 

risen

 

stick

 

stuck

 

stuck

 

run

 

ran

 

run

 

sting

 

stung

 

stung

 

say

 

said

 

said

 

stink

 

stank/stunk

 

stunk

 

see

 

saw

 

seen

 

strive

 

strove

 

striven

 

seek

 

sought

 

sought

 

strike

 

struck

 

struck/ stricken

 

sell

 

sold

 

sold

 

string

 

strung

 

strung

 

send

 

sent

 

sent

 

swear

 

swore

 

sworn

 

set

 

set

 

set

 

sweep

 

swept

 

swept

 

shake

 

shook

 

shaken

 

swim

 

swam

 

swum

 

shed shine

 

shed shone/shined

 

shed shone/shined

 

swing take

 

swung took

 

swung taken

 

shoot

 

shot

 

shot

 

teach

 

taught

 

taught

 

show

 

showed

 

shown/ showed

 

tear

 

tore

 

torn

 

shrink

 

shrank/shrunk

 

shrunk

 

tell

 

told

 

told

 

shut

 

shut

 

shut

 

think

 

thought

 

thought

 

sing

 

sang

 

sung

 

throw

 

threw

 

thrown

 

sit

 

sat

 

sat

 

thrust

 

thrust

 

thrust

 

sleep

 

slept

 

slept

 

understand

 

understood

 

understood

 

slide

 

slid

 

slid

 

undertake

 

undertook

 

undertaken

 

slit

 

slit

 

slit

 

upset

 

upset

 

upset

 

speak

 

spoke

 

spoken

 

wear

 

wore

 

worn

 

speed

 

sped/speeded

 

sped/speeded

 

weave

 

wove

 

woven

 

spend

 

spent

 

spent

 

weep

 

wept

 

wept

 

spin

 

spun/span

 

spun

 

win

 

won

 

won

 

spit

 

spit/spat

 

spit/spat

 

wind

 

wound

 

wound

 

split

 

split

 

split

 

withdraw

 

withdrew

 

withdrawn

 

spread

 

spread

 

spread

 

wring

 

wrung

 

wrung

 

spring

 

sprang/sprung

 

sprung

 

write

 

wrote

 

written

 

Bu fiiller için American English ve British English arasındaki farklılıklara dikkat ediniz.


American 

British 

 

bet - bet - bet

fit -fit -fit

get - got - gotten

quit - quit - quit

bet - bet - bet   or   bet - betted- betted

fit -fitted -fitted

get - got - got

quit - quitted - quitted

American English'de düzenli olan bazı fiiller British English'de düzensizdir.

American:   burn-burned, dream-dreamed, kneel-kneeled, lean-leaned, smell smelled, spill-spilled, etc.


British:    bum-burnt, dream-dreamt, kneel-knelt, lean-leant, smell-smelt, spill-spilt.

 

5-7   CONFUSING VERBS

a) raise, raised, raised (transitive)

The supermarket raised its prices twice last week.

 

b) rise, rose, risen (intransitive)

 Prices rose three times last week.

 

c) arouse, aroused, aroused (transitive)

The man's peculiar behaviour aroused the police's suspicion.

 

d) arise, arose, arisen (intransitive)

Their suspicion arose because of the man's peculiar behaviour.

 

e) set, set, set (transitive)

We set the chair at the head of the table.

 

f)   sit, sat, sat (intransitive)

My father sat at the head of the table

g) lay, laid, laid (transitive)

We laid the carpet after we'd painted the walls.

 

h) lie,* lay, lain (intransitive)

I lay on the sofa after dinner and went to sleep.

 

i)   bind, bound, bound (tie up)

He bound the dog to the fence with a long rope.

 

j)  bound, bounded, bounded (1. border   2. jump)

Luxembourg is bounded by Belgium,           Germany and France.

The dog was bounding across the field.

 

k) find, found, found

I found your pen on top of the fridge 

l)   found, founded, founded (establish)

Mao Tse-Tung founded the People's Republic of China.

 

m) grind, ground, ground (crush, into powder)

In the past people ground wheat into Hour using large stones.

 

n) ground, grounded, grounded (compel to stay on the around) 

The authorities grounded the plane for safety checks.

 

o) wind, wound, wound (twist, turn)

He wound the string into a tight ball.

 

p) wound, wounded, wounded (injure)

The gun shots wounded several people.

 

q) fall, fell, fallen

She fell as she was getting off the bus 

r)  fell, felled, felled (cut down)

They felled the tree because it was getting too big.

 

s)  see, saw, seen

They saw an accident, while driving to work.

 


t)  saw, sawed, sawed/sawn (cut with a saw)

He sawed the wood into equal lengths.

 

u) hang, hung, hung (suspend something)

They hung a flag from the window for Republic Day.

 

v) hang, hanged, hanged (kill someone by hanging)

The leader of the Pakistani military coup, General Zia ul-Huq, hanged the President, Bhutto, in 1979

 


* Lie "yalan söylemek" anlamındaysa, düzenli bir fiildir: She lied to us about her coming late.

 

EMPHATIC "DO" 

Simple Present ve Simple Past tense'lerle. normalde, olumlu cümlede "do/does, did" kullanılmaz. Ancak vurguyu artırmak için bu yardımcı fiilleri olumlu cümlede kullanabiliriz. Bu durumda her iki tense ile de asıl fiil yalın haliyle kullanılır.

Your brother doesn't like fish, does he? Yes, he does like fish.

You don't help your mother with the housework, do you?                Yes, I do help my mother whenever I have time.

You didn't go to school yesterday, did you? Yes, I did go to school yesterday.

 

 

EXERCISE   2    :    Choose the correct word in parentheses. 

1-   Elif proudly (laid/lay) her new Buldan tablecloth over the dining room table.

2-   On our last summer holiday, we (laid/lay) in the sun most of the time and only (saw/sawed) a few of the tourist attractions.

3-   The Chairman (set/sat) the display desk at the entrance to the hall.

4-   The Chairman's family (set/sat) in the front row during his speech.

5-   The genuine 16th century Ottoman tiles (arose/aroused) the interest of several buyers in the auction room.

6-   Last year, wages (rose/raised) thirty percent on average.

7-   The kidnappers (bounded/bound) the millionaire's arms and legs together.

8-   As he had not written the directions clearly, Mark (found/founded) the craft shop after about an hour.

9-   Richard Cadbury (found/founded) Cadbury's chocolate factory in the early 1800s. Cadbury's chocolate remains a favourite of many today.

10- I have an old fashioned alarm clock. On weekdays, I (wound/wind) it up before I go to bed.

11- I (wound/wounded) my alarm clock up and went to bed.

12- A bullet (wound/wounded) a security guard during the robbery.

13- After their second crash this year, serious doubts (arose/aroused) about the safety of Korean Airlines.

14- A rabbit ran in front of us during our walk and the dog (bound/bounded) after it.

15- Despite objections, the council (fell/felled) the ancient oak tree in the playground because it was dangerous.

16- Sheila (saw/sawed) a lovely carpet in the sale last week and bought it for her living room.

17- The carpenter (saw/sawed) the bottom off Sheila's living room door, so now it opens easily over her new carpet.

18- Up until the 20th century, the courts in this state (hang/hanged) convicted murderers. Now they kill them by lethal injection.

19- Since it was so warm and sunny yesterday, I (hung/hanged) some of the flower baskets out.

20- Sarah's son is over enthusiastic. He sometimes (raises/rises) his hand in class when he doesn't know the answer.

21- Engineers (ground/grounded) the hot-air balloon and cancelled the transatlantic attempt as it had a serious leak.

22- For the dinner party I gave last Saturday, I (ground/grounded) my black pepper freshly from peppercorns.

23- Sometimes, when an airplane has a serious fault, the authorities (grind/ground) it until the problem is resolved.

24- The butcher (rose/raised) his eyebrows in surprise when he heard the news.

25- Sir Isaac Newton had his ideas about gravity after an apple from the tree (fell/felled) on his head.


 

EXERCISE     :    Complete the sentences with the Simple Past forms of the irregular verbs in the list. Use each verb only once.

fly                                  give                              keep

lead                              light                             mean,

shoot                            swing                           thrust

undertake                   upset                            weave

weep                             win                               wring

1-     Because of his skill and judgement, Steve Bull.................his team to victory.

2-     Caesar's enemies.................their knives into his back.

3-    Jenny placed some seeds on the bird table in her garden. Soon after, two robins

................. down and Jenny watched them happily.                                                                           

4-     The Viking warrior ................. the axe over his head and let out a horrible scream   before he rushed towards the enemy.

5-     It is quite cold for October, isn't it? We.................the gas central heating boiler    yesterday.

6-     After the death of her husband, Jane ................. the responsibility for the driving

school and ran it herself.

7-     Perhaps I wasn't very polite, but I ................. every word of my complaint.

8-     Skilled craftsmen ................. this cloth and then applied wax to create the batik

pattern.

9-     Because one of Manchester United's players, David Beckham, got a red card, the Brazilian team gained advantage and ................. the match.

10-   First she used a wet mop on the floor to get the dirt off.  Afterwards, she.................

the mop out well and went over it again.

11-  Everybody wonders how the mountaineers ................. alive for days in such harsh

conditions until the rescue team reached them.

12- When Sarah telephoned me about the accident yesterday, it ................. me so much

that I couldn't speak.

13-  My mother ................. me a lovely necklace on my birthday.

14- An envious young man ................. the famous musician, John Lennon, dead outside

his apartment.

15- When Judy won the competition last year, she ................. with joy. Tears of joy

rolled down her face.

EXERCISE   4    :    Complete the sentences with the Simple Past forms of the irregular verbs in the list. Use each verb only once.


bear

flee

lend

slide

teach

build

hide

put

steal

withdraw

dig

hold

seek

throw

swim


 

1-     After the end of World War II, the Latvian war criminal Konrad Kalis ................. to

Australia, where he became an Australian citizen.

2-     Norman Wisdom, the famous film comedian, ................. all the hardships of his

childhood well and didn't let the harsh treatment by others depress him.

3-     In 1983, the Wilsons sold their house in the city centre and ................. a new one on

a plot of land in the countryside.

4-     Last Wednesday, some workmen from the council ................. up the road in front of

our house in order to lay some new gas pipes.

5-     For many years during the Second World War, Anne Frank and her family ................. in the back rooms of an office building. Unfortunately, the Nazis

discovered them in 1944.

6-     Our chairman resigned on Friday and yesterday we ................. an election for a new

one.

7-     I ................. Paul my tent last summer. He returned it yesterday with a bent pole

and a tear in the canvas.

8-     I ................. the key under the door mat this morning, so you can let yourself in.

9-    After the manager left, they ................. someone with similar experience but settled

for a less qualified candidate in the end.

10- On last year's skiing holiday. I lost my balance and................. down the hill for

about ten minutes. I stopped when I hit a tree.

11- The young man ................. money even from his own mother to pay for drugs.

12- Last Saturday. I ................. two miles and received a badge from the swimming club.

13- Cadbury's chocolate company ................. their sponsorship, which was worth about

one million pounds per year, from the club last week and the club are looking for a new sponsor.

14- At John's party on Saturday, his friends ................. him into the swimming pool.

15-  My mother ................. me how to knit when I was twelve.

 

 

 

 

EXERCISE   5    :    Complete the sentences with the Simple Past forms of the irregular verbs in the list. Use each verb only once.


burst 

shrink 

fling 

bend 

lie

see 

break 

mislay 

freeze 

cast 

bleed 

bite 

forsake 

choose 

fit 


 

1-     It was only a shaving cut, but it ............quite a lot and left a stain on his shirt collar.

2-     Yesterday, I hit the side of the car wing mirror on the garage wall and the mirror ................. into several pieces.

3-     He ................. himself into the chair with such force that it collapsed.

4-     She ................. a promising career in computer technology in order to study rug

weaving.

5-     Yesterday, we took our course books to the park, but most of the time we .................

on the grass in the sunshine.

6-     We bought three chickens at the market and ................. two of them to use later.

7-    Yesterday, my husband ................. his glasses, so, because I'm short-sighted as

well, he borrowed mine until he found his.

8-     At midnight on New Year's Eve, we went to the town's centre and ................. lots of

wonderful fireworks.

9-     My mother ................. my favourite jumper the last time she washed it. Now it looks

like a child's jumper.

10-   We................. one of the poles on the tent during our holiday. Now our tent looks

crooked.

11-   In a boxing match last year, Mike Tyson ................. part of his opponent's ear off,

which shows what a barbaric sport it is.

12-   I ................. two of the balloons I was blowing up for the party last night.

13-  Andrew Lloyd Webber ................. Michael Crawford as the Phantom of the Opera in

his musical of the same name.

14-   Of all the flats we were shown, we ................. the one closest to the city centre,

15-   Luckily, Sally's new wardrobe................. perfectly into the space next to her bed.

 

 

 

 

 

EXERCISE   6    :    Complete the sentences with the Simple Past forms of the irregular verbs in the list. Use each verb only once.

quit                            shed                   swear

breed                         catch                 cling 

draw                          pay                    rid 

ring                            split                   strive 

creep                         Sight                 string 

1-     My great uncle ................. in the First World War and won a medal.

2-     He ................. his job last Friday because he didn't get a management position.

3-     This morning, a lorry ................ its load on the approach to the roundabout, which

caused a traffic jam.

4-     Julia ................. that she wouldn't tell anyone about my secret.

5-     He retired from horse racing at the age of thirty-five and ................. horses Instead.

6-     Last Wednesday, the police ................. the murderer as he was trying to leave the

country in disguise.

7-     The passengers of the small boat................. to the side of the life-raft until the

Coast Guard rescued them.

8-     My nephew Edward prepared a birthday card for his mother himself. He.................

a rabbit on the outside and a tree on the inside.

9-     My company ................. us before Christmas instead of on the last Friday in the

month.

10-   My sister................. herself of her fear by visiting a psychotherapist.

11-   I................. the doorbell at your house last night, but you didn't answer. I assumed

 that you were out.

12-  After six more registers, the director ................. the class into two because it had    .

become too crowded.

13-  At the weekend, an expert ................. our violin for us. Now it sounds quite good.

14-  Jack ................. hard to win the race, but in the end. he came second.

15-   By the time we got there, the play had already started, so we ................. into the

theatre quietly so as not to disturb the audience.


EXERCISE   7   : Complete the sentences with the Simple Past forms of the verbs in the list. Some of the verbs are regular and some are irregular. Use each verb only once.


spend

eat

lose

pass

wash

 

climb

grow

maintain  

shut

wear

 

drive 

injure

mistake

borrow

worry


1-     Last night, I ................. the whole evening about where rny son was, and learnt later

that he was safe at his friend's house,

2-     Yesterday, I ................. sixty pounds on a new pair of boots. This morning, I am

regretting it.

3-     On Thursday, I felt ill. so I ................. the shop much earlier than usual and went

home.

4-     The court found him guilty, but right up to his death, his wife ................. that he

was innocent.

5-     Somewhere during our trip, I ................. my passport.

6-     At her wedding. Diana ................. a cream silk gown embroidered with small, cream

beads.

7-     Yesterday, my baby daughter ................. up the stairs.  Of course, 1 was right

behind her in case she fell.

8-     We ................. a lot of Turkish food at the party. My husband was pleased as he

misses Turkey a lot.

9-     During the icy weather last week, my aunt slipped on some ice and ................. her

leg.

10-   Last summer, we ................. all the way from Germany to Turkey, which was an

exhausting trip.

11-   Lucy shed all her hair during her treatment for cancer, but fortunately, it.................

back even thicker than before.

12-   I ................. the one hundred lira note for a five million lira note and tried to pay the

taxi driver with it.

13-   i ................. the dry cleaner's yesterday, but still forgot to pick up your suit.

14-   My car looks great today because 1 ................. and polished it last night.

15-   I ................. fifty pounds from my brother, but now he doesn't want it back, which is.

very nice.

 



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