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THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE

 

7-  THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE

     

     7-1 FORM

 

Affirmative

 

 

Negative

 

 

Interrogative

 

 I have watched that film.      

 You have seen him twice.

 He/She/It has eaten lunch.

 We have invited her.        

 You have worked hard.     

 They have visited us.

 

 I have not watched that film. 

 You have not seen him twice.

 He/She/It has not eaten lunch.

 We have not invited her.  

 You have not worked hard.

 They have not visited us.

 

 Have I watched that film?   

 Have you seen him twice?  

 Has he/she/it eaten lunch?

 Have we invited her?

 Have you worked hard?

 Have they visited us?

 

 

Bu  tense'i  oluşturmak  için have/has   +  past  participle   (fiillerin üçüncü hali)   kullanılır. Have/has ve have not/has not genellikle kısaltılmış olarak kullanılır.

I've seen that film before. /You haven't seen that film.

He's seen that film twice before. /She hasn't seen that film yet.

Olumsuz soruyu iki şekilde sorabiliriz.

 

I) Kısaltma yapmadan:

Have you not seen that film yet? /Has she not seen that film before?

II) Kısaltma yaparak:

Haven't you seen that film yet? /Hasn't she seen that film before?

 

 

7-2 USE OF THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE


a)  Geçmişte yaptığımız eylemleri zaman vermeden anlatıyorsak, bu tense'i kullanırız.

She has removed all the furniture in the house. They have painted their house.

Ancak, aynı eylemleri zamanı belirterek ifade edersek, Simple Past kullanmamız gerekir.

She removed all the furniture in the house last weekend.                They painted their house a few weeks ago.


Geçmişte yaptığımız eylem için zaman zarfı kullanmasak bile, eğer zamanı ima ediyorsak, yine Simple Past kullanırız.

I saw that film when I was in Ankara."    cümlesinde kesin olarak bir zaman vermesek de 'when I was in Ankara'  geçmişte belli bir dönemi ifade etmektedir.

I went shopping after work.    ("after work"   yine belli bir zamanı

belirtmektedir.)

I met him in İzmir. ("in İzmir" ifadesi yer belirtmesine karşın,"İzmir'de bulunduğum dönemde"  anlamını ima etmektedir.)

Present Perfect Tense ile sorulan sorulara yanıt verirken, yine bu kurallara dikkat etmeliyiz.

"Have you met his girlfriend?" sorusuna bir kaç şekilde yanıt verebiliriz.                  Yes, I have. (or No, I haven't.)

Have you met his girlfriend?

Yes. I met her last week.  ( or I met her at Alice's party.)

Have you seen my glasses?             Yes, I have.  ( or No, I haven't.)

Have you seen my glasses?

Yes, I saw them on the kitchen table a few minutes ago.

 

b)  Yakın geçmişte olup sonuçları ya da etkileri içinde bulunduğumuz anda devam eden eylemler için bu tense'i kullanırız.

I have burnt myself. (I'm in pain now. — Şu anda acı çekiyorum.)                 I've cleaned the house. (It's clean now.)

 

c)  Today, this morning, this week, this month, this year, this century vb., henüz

tamamlanmamış bir dönem ifade eden zarflarla kullanılır.

I've been to the cinema twice this week.

I haven't been able to go on holiday this year. Technology has advanced greatly in this century.

"This morning", "this afternoon" ve "this evening" ifadelerini kullanırken, saat kavramına dikkat edelim.

Genellikle  saat   13.00'e  kadar  olan süre  sabah  (morning),   17.00'ye  kadar  öğleden  sonra (afternoon), 17.00-20.00  arası ise akşam (evening)  saatlerini bildirir. Bu durumda:


        I haven't heard the alarm this morning.

ifadesini, sabah diliminin henüz bitmemiş olduğu bir saatte, örneğin saat 11-12 gibi söyleyebiliriz. Eğer Öğleden sonraki bir saatte, örneğin saat 2'de bu sözü söylüyorsak, artık "sabah" dilimi tamamlanıp yeni bir döneme geçilmiş olduğu için, o eylem geçmişte kalmıştır. Bu durumda ise Simple Past Tense kullanmalıyız.

I haven't heard the alarm this morning. (It's 11a.m. now.)                       I didn't hear the alarm this morning. (It's 2p.m. now.)

I've seen Tom this afternoon. (It's 3 p.m. now.)                    I saw Tom this afternoon. (It's 6 p.m. now.)

This year,   this month,   this   century gibi kullanımlarda,   eğer sözü   edilen zaman dilimi tamamlanmışsa, "this" yerine "last” kullanılır.

I have worked hard this week. (The week hasn't finished yet.)                 I worked hard last week.

They have phoned me twice this month.          They phoned me twice last month.

 

d)  Lately, recently ile kullanımı:

"Son   zamanlarda,   son   günlerde"   anlamına  gelen   lately   ve   recently,   Present   Perfect   ile kullanıldığında, yine kesin bir zaman belirtmeden, yaptığımız ya da yapmadığımız işleri anlatır.

Have you seen your parents recently?

There has been great progress in the science of medicine recently.                           There have been some changes in my house lately.

"Recently", Simple Past Tense ile de kullanılır ve "a short time ago"   anlamını verir.

They came recently. (They came a short time ago.)

She passed her exam only recently.

(She passed her exam only a short time ago.)

 

e) Already, just ve yet ile kullanımı: 

"Yet” soruda ve olumsuz cümlede kullanılır ve normal olarak cümlenin sonunda yer alır.

Have you finished your homework yet?                  No, I haven't finished it yet.

Is your father at home?          No, he hasn't come yet.


"Just",  olumlu cümlede kullanılır ve "henüz, şimdi, yenice" anlamını verir. "Just" cümlede, yardımcı fiille asıl fiil arasında yer alır.

Have you finished your homework?            Yes, I've just finished it.

Is the manager in?

No, he has just gone out.

"Already", olumlu cümlede kullanılır ve "zaten, çoktan" anlamına gelir. Bir eylemin umulandan daha önce bir zamanda yapılmış olduğunu vurgular. Cümle içindeki yeri normalde yardımcı fiil ile asıl fiil arasındadır, ancak cümle sonunda da kullanılır.

Shall we go to see the film "Schindler's List" tonight? Not a good idea! I have already seen it.

Manager: Don't forget to mail the invitations in time. Secretary: I've already posted them.

Mother: Wash your hands before you sit at the table. Son: I've washed them already.

 

f)  Ever, never, all my life, in his life, always, occasionally, often, several times, once, twice, etc. gibi zarflarla kullanımı: 

Daha önce, sıklık bildiren zarfların (ever, never, always, often, etc.) Geniş Zaman ile (Simple Present) kullanımını görmüştük. Aynı zarflar, anlamda biraz bir değişiklikle, Present Perfect Tense ile de kullanılır.

I always get up early. (Simple Present — Ben her zaman erken kalkarım.
                         "Bugüne kadar hep  erken kalktım. Bundan sonra da büyük bir

olasılıkla erken kalkacağım. Bu benim alışkanlığım."  anlamını verir.)

I have always got up early.

(Present   Perfect   —   "Ben   her   zaman   erken   kalkmışımdır."   ifadesi, yaşamımın sadece şu ana kadar olan bölümünü kapsar.)

My father has always lived in his hometown.         (He has lived in his hometown all his life.)

I've never seen such a pretty dog in my life.

Have you ever ridden on an elephant?

No, I've ridden on a camel once, but I've never ridden on an elephant.


Once, twice, three times, several times, many times (bir kez, iki kez, üç kez, bir kaç kez, pek çok kez) gibi zarflarla, bir eylemi yaşamımız boyunca kaç kez yaptığımızı ifade etmek için Present Perfect Tense kullanırız.

Have you ever been abroad?

Yes, I've been to Germany several times.

She has invited me to her house many times, but I've never had any                     spare time.

I've seen her parents only once.

NOTE:   Bu zarfların Simple Past Tense ile kullanımına dikkat ediniz.

"She has invited me to her house many times, but I've never had any                   spare time.” cümlesini, geçmişte zamanı belirterek verirsek, Simple Past kullanmamız gerekir.

She invited me to her house many times during my stay in Germany,                       but I never had any spare time.

"My father has lived in his hometown all his life."

cümlesinden,   babamın hayatta olduğu anlamını çıkarıyoruz.  Artık hayatta olmayan birinin yaptığı işlerden söz ediyorsak. Simple Past Tense kullanmamız gerekir.

My grandfather lived in his hometown all his life. (He is dead now.)

I have never flown in an aeroplane.

My grandmother never flew in an aeroplane.

(She isn't alive any more.)

I have ridden on a camel twice. It is very exciting.

When I was in Egypt, I rode on a camel twice. It was very exciting.

 

g)  So far (up to now, until now) ile kullanımı:

"So far",  "şu  ana kadar" anlamına gelir ve so far today,  so far this month, so far this semestre, so far this summer, etc. gibi zarflarla birlikte de kullanılabilir.

It hasn't snowed so far this winter.

I got many bad grades last semestre, but I haven't had any low grades so                         far this semestre.

We haven't eaten anything so far today.

So far this summer, I have swum in the sea only once.


h) For ve Since ile kullanımı:

"For",  geçmişte belli bir noktadan içinde bulunduğumuz ana kadar devam eden bir süreç                             bildirir, (for two years, for a month, for five minutes, for a long time, etc.)

 

"Since", eylemin geçmişte başlangıç noktasını belirtir, ("since yesterday, since 1987, since March, since the Middle Ages, etc.)

He has been the manager since January.

 

They have lived in this town for four years.

They have lived in this town since 1997.

She bought her house three years ago, so she has had it for three years.                  

I last saw him in September. I haven't seen him since then.

We first met at my cousin's 15th birthday party, so we have known each other for almost five years.

She has always been afraid of thunder since her childhood/since she was a girl.

I haven't been to Germany since I got married.

They haven't had the opportunity to have a long holiday for years.

We haven't heard from him since he phoned us a month ago.

He has read fifty pages of the book since I gave it to him.

We have changed four houses since we moved to Istanbul seven years ago.

There has been a great rise in prices in the last six months.                            

The housing problem has grown bigger in the past few years.

 

 i)        It is + a period of time + since + Simple Past/Present Perfect

 

 

 

It is three months since I last went to the cinema.     

It is three months since I have been to the cinema.

Her iki cümleyi de Türkçe'ye şöyle çevirebiliriz:

Sinemaya gitmeyeli üç ay oluyor, ya da

En son sinemaya gittiğimden beri üç ay geçti.

 

Bu cümlelerin eş anlamlısı olarak, "Üç aydır sinemaya gitmiyorum." ya da "Sinemaya en son üç ay önce gittim."  gibi ifadeler de kullanabiliriz.

I haven't been to the cinema for three months.

I last went to the cinema three months ago.

It's ten days since she hasn't worked because she is ill.

(She has been ill in bed for ten days.)

It's eight years since I graduated from university.  

(I graduated from university eight years ago.)

It is just two weeks since they got married.

(They got married just two weeks ago.  or They have been married for just two weeks.)

 

j) This is the first time   +  Present Perfect

 

 

 

I'm very excited now, because this is the first time I've driven a car.

This is the second time he has played tennis. That's why he isn't good at it.

You shouldn't drink so much coffee. It's bad for you. This is the fifth cup of coffee you have drunk in the last two hours.

This is the third exam we have taken so far this term.

 

k) This is Superlative   +  Present Perfect

 

 

 

 

This is the most boring book I have ever read.

(Bu hayatımda okuduğum en sıkıcı kitap.)

This is the most difficult situation I have ever been in.

He is the most talkative person I have met in my life.

 

 

1)         gone   or    been


"go" fiilini Perfect Tense ile iki şekilde kullanabiliriz:

Eğer kişi, sözü edilen yerde ise, ya da sözü  edilen yere gitmek üzere yola çıkmışsa,  gone kullanılır.

 

I'd like to talk to your mother. Is she at home?

No, she has gone shopping.

Can I speak to Mr. Jones, please?

Sorry. He has gone out of town and hasn't come back yet.

Eğer kişi, sözü edilen yerde daha önce bulunduğunu ifade ediyorsa, yani konuşma sırasında başka bir mekanda ise been kullanılır.

Have you ever been abroad?

Yes, I have been to Germany several times.

(The speakers are now not in Germany.)

I want to do some shopping, but I'm afraid I haven't got enough money.

Don't worry. I have been to the bank today. I can lend you some.

 

EXERCISE   11 :    Use the Present Perfect Simple or Simple Past.

1-     I'm afraid I can't make a comparison between Turkish and Indian cuisine because I (never, try) ........................ the latter.

2-     ........... you (see) .................... Mike today? I think I (see) ........................ him

parking his car when I (look) ........................ out of the window this morning, but

now I can't find him anywhere.

3-     Mr. Smith, the fax from our suppliers (just, arrive) ........................ . Shall I bring it

over to you?

4-     Believe it or not. This is the first time I (manage) ........................ to make a proper

cake. I (try) ........................ it many times before, but each time it (be)

........................ a disaster.


5-     Oh no! The lid to the salt (fall) ........................ off into the soup. What shall I do

now?

6-    A: Who (win) ........................ the race yesterday?

B: Alex. Apparently, it (be) ........................ an easy victory for him because he (run)

........................ first throughout the race.

A: He must be very happy. He (win) ........................ all the races so far this season.

7-     A: You look great!   ................ you (style) .................... your hair differently?

B: Yes, I (just, be) ........................ to my hairdresser. He (encourage)........................

me to try a new model, and I (let) ..................... him do as he (like) .....................

8-     We (not, visit) ........................ that butcher's since he (sell) ........................ us some

very poor meat,

9-     Ever since my car (break) ........................ down that Sunday, I (not,fee)l

........................ safe driving it.

10- Tim (often, think) ........................ of opening a cafe, but he probably never will

because he has neither money nor courage to do so.

11- He (send) ........................ three proposals out so far this week, but he (not, have)

........................ any orders yet.

12- As soon as he (hear) ........................ about the robbery, the sherrif (grab)

........................ his gun, (mount) ........................ his horse and (set) ........................

off after the robbers. It (be) ........................ almost two days since he (leave)

......................... but he (still, not, return) ........................ .

13-  At 9 p.m. on Monday, fourteen-year-old Simon (leave) ........................ home for his

friend's house. No one (see) ........................ him since.

14-  I (enjoy) ........................ everything they (serve) ........................ so far during this

meal. What about you?

15-  After he (give) ........................ up playing football, he (coach) ........................ the

Swansea team for four years before he (retire) ........................ to his hometown.

16- This is the second time he (be) ........................ ill with flu this year and he (be)

........................ ill quite a lot last year too.

17-   Last month they (raise) ........................ the price of petrol and I believe that they

(just, increase) ........................ it again.

18- They (sell) ........................ an antique chest for 1 million pounds on Friday. That's

the highest price that a piece of furniture (ever, raise) ........................ at auction.

19-  I'm waiting for a letter.  ............... the postman (deliver) .................. the mail yet?

20- As a boy, he (sing) ........................ beautifully, but I (not, hear) ........................ him

sing as an adult.


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